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Chinese Sword Hilt: Parts, Characteristics, and Use

Written By: Abigail Cambal
Published On: April 12, 2023
Edited by: Juliana Cummings

The Chinese sword hilt varies in quality, craftsmanship, and decoration, from plain and utilitarian to ornate. Its various parts have their names in imperial dictionaries and books on arms manufacture. However, different regions, provinces, towns, and workshops used varying terms to refer to them.

Let’s explore the different parts of a Chinese sword hilt, its characteristics, and terminologies used by collectors.

Characteristics of Chinese Sword Hilt

A sword hilt comprises of a pommel, grip or handle, sword guard, and other components. However, the names of the various parts of the hilt may vary depending on the sword type. Also, Chinese sword hilts differ considerably in the design and ornamentation of their fittings.

Here are the unique characteristics of a Chinese sword hilt:

Metal and Construction

Many Chinese sword hilts had well-made fittings, usually of thick brass, iron, and occasionally silver. Iron hilt mountings were decorated with pierced openwork design, chiseling, gilding, and gemstones. In the early 19th century, many ivory-carved hilts were produced in the workshops of Guangzhou, one of the notable ivory carving centers of the time.

Pommel

A Chinese saber pommel of the round style Late 18th early 19th century
A Chinese saber pommel of the round style, late 18th / early 19th century – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

A pommel is a metal fitting at the top of the hilt. It often serves as a counterweight to the sword blade and prevents the sword from slipping out of hand. The pommel of the Chinese straight sword is called jiàn shou, and the pommel in a saber is called dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). However, the shape and design of the pommel dramatically vary.

Grip or Handle

Grip or handle of the Chinese scholar sword
Grip or handle of the Chinese Scholar sword – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

The handle is part of the hilt that is gripped by the hand. Some Chinese sword grips were one-handed, while others could accommodate two or three fingers of the other hand for additional leverage. The handle of a jian is commonly referred to as jianba (剑把), while the grip of a saber is called dāobǎ (刀把).

Handle of a Cantonese saber
Handle of a Cantonese saber – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

Straight sword jian often had a carved handle, usually of ivory, horn, or wood. Chinese sabers occasionally had a handle made of water buffalo horn. Until the late 18th century, Chinese sabers typically had straight grips. Later on, downward-curving grips became widespread.

Tang

Tang on a Ming dynasy saber blade
Tang on a Ming Dynasty saber blade – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

The tang is the unsharpened portion of the blade covered by the wooden grip. The Chinese sword tang was usually peened over at the pommel and rarely marked. The term used for a sword tang is sǔn (榫), meaning tenon (a projecting piece of wood made for insertion into a mortise in another piece). On the other hand, the saber tang is called dīngdāo gēntiě (釘刀根鐵).

 Handle Wrapping

Handle wrapping of a fine late Qing jian
Handle wrapping of a fine late Qing Jian – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

Often, the handle is covered with leather to provide a non-slip surface. Sometimes, the wooden grip is wrapped with a silk cord wrapping (sikou), which provides a comfortable way of holding the sword. It often features a loop or crossings, making it functional and aesthetically pleasing. In some braided designs, each cord crosses another cord inside the loop.

These grip wraps were common on sabers and occasionally on jian during the late Qing dynasty. However, some Chinese sabers used by rebels had plain, wooden grips without wrapping. Some Japanese-inspired Chinese grips were wrapped with leather in Japanese fashion.

Wrist Strap or Lanyard

Original xizi on a fine Qing imperial saber
Original xìzi or lanyard, on a fine Qing imperial saber – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

A Chinese saber sometimes features a wrist strap to secure the weapon to the wrist. It is called yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子), meaning saber lanyard. It was typically made of silk, tied together in a ball knot, or with string. These lanyards were common in imperial guards and Qing bannerman sabers.

Tassel

Tassel on a Republican period fighting Jian
Tassel on a Republican period fighting Jian – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

Tassels were more common on the straight sword jian than plain wrist straps. The tassel, also called jian sui (劍繐), hangs from the hilt to enhance its appearance. Some long tassels were designed to attack the opponent’s eyes, while others allowed throwing the sword and pulling it back. They were common in the scholar’s sword and dancing sword.

Ferrule

A Chinese saber ferrule of the round style Late 18th early 19th century
A Chinese saber ferrule of the round style, late 18th / early 19th century – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

A ferrule is a metal fitting between the grip and the sword guard. It keeps the wooden grip from splitting while ensuring a good fit against the handguard. The ferrule of a saber is called dāobǎ shù (刀把束), meaning handle binder. The alternative term bǎ gū (靶箍) is also used and literally means handle loop.

Sword Guard

Sword guards on four Qing dynasty jian
Sword guards on four Qing dynasty Jiàn – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

The sword guard protects the user’s hand from the opponent’s sword. The Chinese sword guard is called hūshǒu (護手), meaning handguard. The jian sword guard is called jiàn gé, while the saber guard is called dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). The jian often has backward-swept guards, such as the ace-of-spade style and carved zoomorphic designs.

On the other hand, the saber guard was often disc-shaped and called hùshǒu pán (護手盤). Some Chinese sabers, especially butterfly swords, had D-shaped guards, while others had S-shaped guards. Some Chinese sword guards were inspired by the Japanese design, featuring hitsu-ana openings frequently found on Japanese sword guards.

Design and Craftsmanship

Grip of a Chinese imperial saber of the 18th century
Grip of a Chinese imperial saber of the 18th century – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

Chinese sword hilts widely vary in their decorative details. Some motifs were inspired by ancient Chinese bronze vessels such as dragons and phoenixes, while others feature Buddhist elements such as swastikas and lotuses. Collectors prize openwork filigree in brass or iron. Some ornaments, including cabochon stones of coral, turquoise, lapis lazuli, and pearls were restricted for princely ranks.

Shuangjian with intricately carved ivory grips
Shuangjian with intricately carved ivory grips- Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

Many sword hilts of jian were elaborately carved, often with designs of flowers, fruits, or scenes in a classical Chinese garden landscape. Some also feature Western art and cross-cultural influences designed for the export trade. The so-called Taoist jian had hilts featuring the taiji symbol, Eight Trigrams pommels, and typical zoomorphic sword guards with a taotie face.

The Fangshi and Yuanshi Style Fittings

Hilt details on a peidao
Hilt details on Peidao: Fangshi (upper) and Yuanshi (lower) style fittings – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

In the Qing military, officials wore Chinese sabers called peidao with recognizable hilts and fittings. The name peidao translates as waist knife because it was worn suspended from the belt. Peidao fittings have two basic styles: the angular or squared style fāngshì and the round style yuánshì

Some modern-day collectors also refer to the fāngshì as fāngzhuāng (方裝) and yuánshì as yuánzhuāng (圓裝), which means round or square dress, respectively.

Fangshi 

Fangshi officers saber
Fangshi officer’s saber – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

As an angular style, the fāngshì (方式) had a rectangular cross-section to its hilt and scabbard. Most handles were straight, but others were curved. It also had a rectangular ferrule and pommel, and its scabbard’s chape had a flattened end.

The fangshi style was never seen in Ming artwork and only became widespread in the early to mid-Qing. It was likely popularized by the Manchus, who established the Qing dynasty in the 17th century.

Yuanshi 

Yuanshi fitting in an excellent Qing officer saber
Yuanshi fitting in an excellent Qing officer saber – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

As a rounded style, the yuánshì (圓式) had an oval cross-section on its hilt and scabbard. Most handles were curved, though some were straight. It had a rounded ferrule and globular or horse-hoof pommel, and its chape was also rounded. It appeared in the mid-18th century among the Manchu elites, carried by the emperor, imperial princes, and elite soldiers. 

Transitional Style

Traditional style of fitting
Transitional style of fitting – Credits: Mandarin Mansion Antiques

In the late 18th century, there were transitional styles between the earlier fāngshì and the later yuánshì. Some had hilts and scabbards with rounded cross-sections, which are characteristic of yuánshì, yet feature angular metal fittings derived from the earlier fāngshì.

Sources Cited

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13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eChinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabersu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabersu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
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4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
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7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eDāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daobau0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daobau003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eDāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshuu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshuu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eDāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shuu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shuu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eDāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushouu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushouu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eDrewe, J. (2009). u003ca href=u0022https://books.google.com/books?id=U6UdWcIx95YCu0026amp;printsec=frontcoveru0026amp;dq=T%C3%A0ij%C3%AD+Ji%C3%A0n+32-Posture+Sword+Formu0026amp;hl=enu0026amp;newbks=1u0026amp;newbks_redir=1u0026amp;sa=Xu0026amp;ved=2ahUKEwjphLqJ8KiFAxXXTGcHHetoCJAQ6AF6BAgHEAIu0022u003eTàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Formu003c/au003e. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.u003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eEng, C. (2015). u003ca href=u0022https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=UjGeBQAAQBAJu0026amp;printsec=frontcoveru0026amp;dq=Colours+and+Contrast:+Ceramic+Traditions+in+Chinese+Architectureu0026amp;hl=enu0026amp;newbks=1u0026amp;newbks_redir=1u0026amp;sa=Xu0026amp;ved=2ahUKEwjvwceQ8KiFAxUPamwGHZyxAYUQ6AF6BAgEEAIu0022u003eColours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architectureu003c/au003e. Brill.u003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eGlossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminologyu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminologyu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eHūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushouu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushouu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eMilitary sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynastyu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynastyu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003ePhilip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, u003ca href=u0022https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063u0022u003ehttps://doi.org/10.2307/1513063u003c/au003e. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.u003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eQing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshiu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshiu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eShuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-gripsu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-gripsu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eSǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sunu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sunu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eYang, J.-M. (2014). u003ca href=u0022https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=i1vJoAEACAAJu0026amp;dq=Tai+Chi+Sword+Classical+Yang+Style:+The+Complete+Form,+Qigong,+and+Applicationsu0026amp;hl=enu0026amp;newbks=1u0026amp;newbks_redir=1u0026amp;sa=Xu0026amp;ved=2ahUKEwie77aq8KiFAxVGR2wGHcGNCYsQ6AF6BAgMEAIu0022u003eTai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applicationsu003c/au003e. YMAA Publication Center.u003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ern tu003cliu003eu003cspan data-sheets-root=u00221u0022 data-sheets-value=u0022{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:2,u0026quot;2u0026quot;:u0026quot;1. Bǎgū (靶箍). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/bagu
2. Chinese shuangdao – double sabers. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/chinese-shuangdao-double-sabers
3. Dāobǎ (刀把 / 刀把). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba
4. Dāobǎ dǐngshù (刀把頂束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-dingshu
5. Dāobǎ shù (刀把束). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/daoba-shu
6. Dāo hūshǒu (刀護手). (2019, July 9). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/dao-hushou
7. Drewe, J. (2009). Tàijí Jiàn 32-Posture Sword Form. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
8. Eng, C. (2015). Colours and Contrast: Ceramic Traditions in Chinese Architecture. Brill.
9. Glossary of Chinese saber terminology. (2019, May 5). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/glossary-chinese-saber-terminology
10. Hūshǒu (護手). (2020, July 29). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/hushou
11. Military sabers of the Qing dynasty. (2009, June 27). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/military-sabers-qing-dynasty
12. Philip M. W. Tom. “Some Notable Sabers of the Qing Dynasty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.” Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol. 36, 2001, pp. 207–11. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/1513063. Accessed 7 Apr. 2023.
13. Qing dynasty saber mounts, fangshi u0026amp; yuanshi. (2016, September 20). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/article/qing-dynasty-saber-mounts-fangshi-yuanshi
14. Shuangjian with ivory grips. (n.d.). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/item/shuangjian-ivory-grips
15. Sǔn (榫). (2019, July 28). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/sun
16. Yang, J.-M. (2014). Tai Chi Sword Classical Yang Style: The Complete Form, Qigong, and Applications. YMAA Publication Center.
17. Yāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0026quot;}u0022 data-sheets-userformat=u0022{u0026quot;2u0026quot;:513,u0026quot;3u0026quot;:{u0026quot;1u0026quot;:0},u0026quot;12u0026quot;:0}u0022u003eYāodāo xìzi (腰刀繫子). (2019, July 30). Mandarin Mansion. Retrieved April 8, 2023, from u003ca href=u0022https://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu0022u003ehttps://www.mandarinmansion.com/glossary/yaodao-xiziu003c/au003eu003c/spanu003eu003c/liu003ernu003c/olu003e

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